Hojai, India – After battling for life for 5 days at a hospital in Guwahati, the capital of the northeastern Indian state of Assam, Kulsuma Begum succumbed to her injuries on March 11.

Her mother-in-law alleged police and paramilitary forces barged into her property to physically get rid of Kulsuma – who had provided birth to a child boy just two hours ago – through an eviction drive at Sarkebasti village in central Assam’s Hojai district, about 150km east of Guwahati.

Authorities in the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) forcibly evicted extra than 600 Muslim households from their land in Hojai, saying the households, such as Kulsuma’s, had encroached upon government land.

“Seven to eight policemen entered the property and began ransacking it. I could take some stuff out. When I came back I saw Kulsuma was lying on the floor and could not move,” Ramisa Khatun told Al Jazeera.

“I took up the child as I feared they could possibly kill him,” stated Ramisa, 50. As Kulsuma was getting ushered out of the property she collapsed, stated Ramisa.

Seven to eight policemen entered the property and began ransacking it&#13

Ramisa Khatun, evictee


The 22-year-old was rushed to Guwahati just after a regional hospital in Hojai referred her to Gauhati Healthcare College and Hospital, exactly where a medical professional stated she had “suffered shock”.

In one particular corner of the Guwahati hospital corridor, the newborn child was sleeping subsequent to Ramisa on a visibly dirty blanket. The child has now been handed more than to the loved ones.

FIR filed

Following public outrage, a formal police complaint (Initial Information and facts Report) was filed against many KAAC officials as effectively as a regional police officer.

“A case has been registered and the investigation is going on,” Hojai Deputy Commissioner (DC) Tanmoy Borgohain told Al Jazeera.










A court in Guwahati has place a cease on the evictions [Courtesy of Ain Uddin/Al Jazeera]

Tuliram Ronghang, chief executive member of the KAAC and leader of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Celebration (BJP) in Assam, alleged that undocumented immigrants from Bangladesh had encroached upon the land, which belonged to Karbi Anglong.

Nonetheless, the evictees refuted Ronghang’s allegations, saying they are genuine Indian citizens. Some activists questioned the legality of the complete operation, saying Sarkebasti village fell below Hojai district and not below KAAC jurisdiction.

“The Karbi Anglong district does not have any locus standi to evict the people today right here,” Saidur Rahman, president of Hojai district committee of Krishak Mukti Sangram Samiti, a peasant movement, told Al Jazeera.

A letter by a prime Hojai official to Assam’s chief secretary corroborated their claims. The letter written on February 28 rejected the allegation that people today had encroached upon forestland and warned against any eviction drive.

Regardless of issues of human rights violations and legal complications, the Karbi Anglong administration nonetheless went ahead with its operation to uproot hundreds of households weeks ahead of the common elections scheduled in April and Could.

A court in Guwahati lastly place a cease on the evictions asking the administrations in Hojai and Karbi Anglong to settle the border dispute.

Eviction drives

Beneath the BJP government in Assam, which came to energy in 2016 on an anti-immigrant plank, eviction drives have escalated.

Much less than six months just after coming to energy in Assam, the BJP government – the initial in the northeastern states – launched eviction campaign close to the well-known Kaziranga National Park against what it known as “illegal encroachment”.

A case has been registered and the investigation is going on&#13

Tanmoy Borgohain, Hojai Deputy Commissioner


In February 2017, the government informed the Assam assembly that about three,481 households had been evicted from 13 districts. Even though most of them had been Muslims, they also integrated other marginalised social groups such as the tribal people today.

Nonetheless, government records reveal hundreds of people today had been evicted from the lands they officially owned.

Indrajit Bezbaruah, an associate professor at Assam’s Lumding College, stated these evicted had been either internally displaced persons (IDPs) from flood-impacted regions, IDPs from ethnic conflict-ridden Bodoland districts, or the regional landless peasants belonging to the indigenous Kachari Muslim neighborhood settled in the location because the 1970s.

Professionals say that recurring ethnic strife and floods in Assam have resulted in the state getting one particular of the highest numbers of IDPs in the nation. In 2015, Assam hosted an astounding 74.four % of all the IDPs in the nation.

Assam has 362,450 landless households spread across 31 of its 33 districts, Forest Minister Pramila Rani Brahma told the state assembly in February final year.

Peasant organisations in the location have been demanding the government to offer them with land ownership for extra than two decades.

Nonetheless, neither the central nor the state government has laid down any policy to rehabilitate Assam’s IDPs. With small institutional assistance, a lot of of them have settled on government land more than the decades.

Muslim IDPs

Suprakash Talukdar, a leader of the Communist Celebration of India-Marxist (CPM), alleged that Assam government has not performed any land settlement survey because 1965, which has denied land to the landless and kept them vulnerable to forced evictions.

Bhabesh Kalita, Minister of State for Income and Disaster Management in Assam, on the other hand, stated his government was operating to rehabilitate these displaced by erosion.

“We have a policy for rehabilitation for erosion impacted households only for these people today who are displaced from patta [documented] land and we are rehabilitating them,” Kalita stated.

“Our government has taken a target to offer land patta to one particular lakh [100,000] people today this year. No government has taken such target primarily based initiative so far.”

Muslim IDPs in Assam carry an added threat of getting stripped of their citizenship rights, according to Guwahati-primarily based activist Hafiz Ahmed.

Eviction policy does not discriminate against people today primarily based on caste, creed or religion&#13

Bhabesh Kalita, Assam minister


Ahmed alleged the government has constructed an anti-Muslim sentiment to marginalise the neighborhood.

“BJP came to energy in the state on the premise of hatred against the Muslims. They want to maintain the momentum of hatred on till the common election,” he stated, referring to the national elections.

Kalita, the Assam minister, on the other hand, denied the government was targeting a specific group.

“Eviction policy does not discriminate against people today primarily based on caste, creed or religion,” he told Al Jazeera.

Syed Burhanur Rahman, a lawyer at Gauhati Higher Court, stated the eviction could outcome in the impacted Muslims getting declared stateless.

Final July, almost 4 million people today, largely Muslims, had been excluded from a draft citizenship list, effectively stripping them of their citizenship. A Supreme Court-monitored physique National Register of Citizens (NRC) is operating to publish its final list that aims to determine undocumented Bangladeshi immigrants.

“Regardless of the warning from the highest authority of the district administration that it will influence the NRC method, how the government could go ahead with the eviction drive,” asked Rahman.

Meanwhile, Mafijul Islam, Kulsuma’s brother-in-law who functions as a building worker in Guwahati, told Al Jazeera that they had been asked to attend the NRC hearing in Nagaon district, about 50km from Hojai, 3 days just after their property was demolished.










Practically three,000 people today have been rendered homeless [Courtesy of Ain Uddin/Al Jazeera]

As Kulsuma fought for her life at the Guwahati hospital, her loved ones members travelled more than 120km to Nagaon to meet the NRC official, who refused to meet them because they had reached the venue just after the 4pm deadline.

Back in Hojai, hundreds of households have been rendered homeless.

Hojai Deputy Commissioner Borgohain stated on “humanitarian grounds we have sent a health-related group and attempting to offer drinking water”.

Activists have raised issues at the timings of the evictions as elections are barely a couple of weeks away.

But Borgohain assured his administration has taken measures to address the issues relating to the conduct of the elections (amongst the displaced people today).

In Guwahati, Talukdar’s CPM celebration and other civil society groups organised a protest march to seek justice for Kulsuma.

Assam’s Muslims are extra vulnerable as specific political forces treat them as “second class citizens due to the fact of their identity”, Talukdar stated.